Proprietary Software
We
have developed several computer
programs that facilitate the
complex calculations required in the design and
analysis of grounding systems. Our software is
currently being used by organizations in Canada,
the United States, Korea and Venezuela. The
programs include: 
Click on one of the above
links for more information about each program.
Select one of the following
links for user manuals for KWIKGRID,
NLayer,
TACLINK
or CONIND.
Please see this link for a discussion
of the copyright protection system we are
thinking we will apply to the software in the
future.

KWIKGRID® 


KWIKGRID® is a ground
electrode analysis program that has been
extensively tested on real applications. KWIKGRID®
enables modeling of a ground electrode as an
arrangement of buried conductors in the soil.
Above is an example of a ground grid with ground
rods. KWIKGRID® will
calculate the resistance of the ground electrode
and soil potentials at any point. The soil
resistivity can be uniform or layered and the
conductors can have differing lengths and
diameters and be oriented in any direction.
KWIKGRID® comes
with a soil resistivity analysis program called
NLayer.
The NLayer program interface looks like this
(144k).
KWIKGRID®
applications include:

Substation
ground grid design. By
calculating soil potentials, step and
touch potentials can be determined. The
ground grid design can then be modified
to achieve desired step and touch
potential limits or ground resistance.
Also, for example, the effects of a
frozen upper soil layer on touch
potentials and the addition of rods to a
grid, can be investigated.

Interpretation
or verification of grounding field
measurements. For
example, fallofpotential resistance
measurements of large ground systems
where the reference electrodes cannot be
placed far enough away, can be modeled
to determine the point on the traverse
which gives the true resistance.

Investigation
of transfer of potential between
energized grids and other
structures. For
example, calculation of soil potentials
around a pipeline which is near a
substation or transmission tower footing
or the coupling between an "isolated"
electronic equipment ground and the
adjacent plant ground system formed by
the plant footings.

Determination
of cathodic protection current flow.
KWIKGRID®
calculates flow of current into or out
of each conductor segment. This can be
used to assess the effectiveness of
cathodic protection systems or their
effect on other adjacent conductive
systems.
The
ground electrode may be a single structure with
user specified injected current or several
structures, some of which have injected
currents. If required, the separate structures
may be interconnected by complex impedances.
Conductors can be automatically subdivided into
smaller segments to improve calculation
accuracy. A modification to allow the user to
automatically select the ultimate maximum number
of conductor segments, is being tested. When
this is applied, KWIKGRID subdivides the longer
conductor segments until the maximum number has
been reached, or further subdivision would
result in conductors that are too short compared
with their radius.
Input
data can be plotted on a graphics screen with
the option to print it on a printer. The plots
can be plan or isometric view. This is a useful
check on the entry of bad data such as misplaced
decimal points which show up as conductors that
are too short or too long or at unexpected
angles.
Equipotential
contour lines can be interpolated from an array
of soil potential calculations covering an area
of interest. These can be used to determine step
and touch potentials throughout the area and to
identify locations where tolerable levels are
exceeded.
The
present version of KWIKGRID®
is written in ‘C++’ and can be run on an IBM
compatible PC having a 32 bit operating system
(Windows 95/98/ME/NT4/NT2000).
We sell
KWIKGRID®
for $7,500.00 and will provide one day of
training in its use for $1,000.00. The prices
are in United States dollars and include the NLayer
resistivity analysis program.
The User
Manual for KWIKGRID is available on line.
For more information or to order KWIKGRID®, please
contact us.

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TACLINK® 

TACLINK®
is a nodal network analysis program that
is optimized for grounding analyses. We
based TACLINK®
on standard nodal network analysis
procedures and have tested it
extensively. Nodal analysis results can be
verified easily because, for any
calculation, the vectorial sum of the
currents flowing into and out of a node
must be zero. Other results, such as node
potentials, must fit the currents flowing
in the network elements and can therefore
also be verified.
With TACLINK®
we have enhanced the basic nodal network
analysis algorithm in several ways:

Threephase power sources
can be added using a data format
where only the linetoline
voltage, source impedance, phase
angle and node connections are
required. The source impedance can
be in symmetrical components in
ohms or p.u. on a given base MVA
and kV or as self and mutual
impedance parameters. The program
develops the required current
sources and impedances from the
input data.

Various transformer
connections can also be added in a
simplified form. For example, a
Ydelta or YYdelta connected
transformer can be added by
specifying the primary, secondary
[and tertiary] voltage, size in
MVA, percent impedance/s and nodes
to which it is connected. The
program will model the transformer
using ideal singlephase
transformers and impedances.

Buried cables with and
without ground wires. There can be any number
of cables and ground wires. The
cables can be single conductor or
three conductor. The required
input data are the cable core
parameters, sheath inside and
outside radius, sheath metal type,
burial depth and spacing of the
cables and ground wires.

Buried pipelines
parallel to other conductors can
be modeled. TACLINK®
will develop the impedance matrix
and include the pipelines as
lumped impedance pi networks. The
required input data is the pipe
diameter, wall thickness,
resistivity and relative
permeability of the pipe metal,
coating resistance, burial depth
and spacing from other conductors.
The present version
of TACLINK® is written
in ‘C++’ and can be run on an IBM
compatible PC having a 32 bit operating
system (Windows 95/98/ME/NT4/NT2000). The
maximum model size depends on the model
configuration as matrix sparsity is
exploited. Models with more that 15000
nodes have been analyzed.
We
sell TACLINK®
for $7,500.00 and will provide one day
of training in its use for $1,000.00.
The prices are in United States dollars.
We have used the
kernel of TACLINK® in
other analytical programs to generate
complex distribution models, automatically
investigate many fault locations in a
transmission system and the effect of
sequential firing of rated spark gaps.
TACLINK® is
described in detail in the user
manual that is available for
downloading.
Other sample files:
Sample input
data file (11k) used to analyze
ground fault effects of a large
Cogeneration project on an existing Pulp
Mill. The Cogeneration project was
constructed close to the Pulp Mill and
connected to the 138 kV transmission lines
that supply power to the Mill.
The calculation will
generate a log file
(9k) and results
file (52k). You need to refer to the
user manual to properly understand
the data format used.
For more
information or to order TACLINK®,
please contact us.

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CONIND™ 
CONIND™
(CONduction and INDuction)
is a pipeline interference analysis
program.
It is based on the
work carried out in the 1979 EPRI/AGA
study "Mutual Design Considerations for
Overhead AC Transmission Lines and Gas
Transmission Pipelines". This study
presented a series of engineering programs
written for the Texas Instruments TI59
programmable calculator. The original
calculator programs used sophisticated
algorithms, based on accepted methodology
and could be used to determine pipeline
parameters, self and mutual coupling
impedances, electric fields due to
currents in power conductors and to do
network reduction.
The most recent
version of CONIND™, which is
written in ‘C++’, uses algorithms
derived directly from the basic equations
in the EPRI study. CONIND™
also includes a feature to enable the
addition of soil potentials such as would
occur if a pipeline passes close to a
substation where there is a ground fault.
CONIND™
represents the pipeline/power line model
as a series of nodes. The conditions along
a segment between any two nodes are
constant. The size of the model is only
limited by computer memory. The network
can have any number of branches such as
mitigation wires and pipeline spurs. Each
segment of the model can be defined with
different soil resistivity, pipe
parameters, power line exposure and soil
potential. Power line information is
entered as x and y coordinates related to
the pipeline. There can be any number of
parallel conductors, each carrying a
different vectorial current. Lumped
impedances such as ground beds or
connections to other pipelines whose
impedance is known, can be added at any
node.
The program solves
the model by iterative passes through it,
until stability is achieved. For models
without any loops, usually only two or
three iterations are required. For models
with loops, more iterations may be needed.
The Thevenin circuits are then combined at
each node to give the node voltage and the
currents flowing into and out of each pipe
segment are determined. The output results
contain Thevenin equivalent circuits at
each node and the current flowing into and
out of each pipe segment. The Thevenin
equivalent circuit at each node gives the
node voltage and driving impedance. By
selecting a suitable node numbering
sequence, the node voltage results can be
plotted to obtain a potential profile for
a portion of the pipeline.
We have used
CONIND™ to model a gas
pipeline system with over 600 km of main
and branch pipelines. The pipelines have
parallel pipe sections and parallel
exposure to three 500 kV, six 230 or 287
kV, ten 138 kV and twelve 69 kV
transmission lines. The potential profile
along the main line and branches was
calculated for 32 different power system
ground fault conditions. This process was
automated to produce a "worst case"
profile of the pipeline potentials so that
hazardous areas could be identified and
mitigative measures implemented by the
pipeline owner. We believe this may be the
most extensive pipeline electrical
coupling study that has ever been carried
out.
We
sell CONIND™
for $6,500.00 and will provide one day
of training in its use for $1,000.00.
The prices are in United States dollars.
CONIND™
is described in more detail in the user
manual and sample files of a simple
analysis problem.
For more
information or to order CONIND™,
please contact us.

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This page was last updated on:
August 9, 2011
